Discussion on division of labour and also show that inequality still persists in our society?
Division of labour is in sync with Law of Nature. Just start with analysing your own body. We have different parts of body and their working – have got different functions. For example our own hand. You have different sizes of fingers and when all five fingers start working as a cohesive unit as a hand, the hand performs its function well – as we require. Similar is the case with all the parts of the body which help in maintaining our system as a well-nit unit.
In the similar manner, we have different sets of classes in our society too. And the functions of the members are different. For instance, the farmers till the field and help agricultural produce, skilled labour class help in industrial production according to their skill and capability, the unskilled labour contribute their mite differently, the managerial staff render perform their functions as financial experts, looking after the human resources and employment etc. All have their role defined as per their merit and capability. But when all contribute as per their assigned tasks honestly and sincerely, they help in fructification of their efforts for the organization concerned.
Also, it should not be forgotten that each of the contributing constituents (management, skilled labour, unskilled labour, administrative staff etc) have different roles and functions will naturally get different salaries and perks. This may result in different classes of people – people with higher pay bands, middle pay bands and lower pay bands but we cannot avoid this segregation since everything is laid down and as per rules and regulations. But too much of inequality leads to dissensions in the society.
All this differential works in a particular society for their optimal benefit and this makes a society dynamic.
If there is no difference in the society, then different functions are difficult to be performed as different strata of society have their performances set – according to the aptitude and other considerations. Confining themselves to their own sphere of activity different people function to the best of their ability and belief. Together these un-equal segregation in sociological stratification makes the world go. This is true of the societies, this is true with respect to working of families and also with respect to the working of the world at large.
It is well within the purview to discuss the division in labour with respect to the following:-
- Division of labour according to Manusimrti.
- Adam Smith’s theory on the division of labor
- Karl Marx’s theory on division of labour
- Durkheim’s theory on the division of labor
- Division of Labour – Manuimrti. According to Manusimrti, different people are assigned duties and also various rights, laws, conduct, virtues etc according to their Varnas. These varnas are: Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Shudras and Vaishyas.
In Bhagvad Gita explains: Brahmanas, kshatriyas, vaishyas, and shudras are distinguished by the qualities born of their own nature in accordance with the three material qualities.
- Brahmanas (Priests, Teachers, and Intellectuals).
Brahmans provided education and spiritual education to the people. They had knowledge about Vedas, offer guidance to others, should possess all good qualities – sincerity, honesty, integrity, austerity and above above spread the message of dharma and other moral issues to others without any bias because they had to set an example for others to follow. In older times, they were the advisors to the kings and commanded great respect and adulation as far as religion and spiritual matters were concerned.
- Kshatriyas were warriors in nature, robust in health. They possessed wealth.
They were rulers, were powerful, health wise. They protected their subjects, ensured that the citizens perform their duties assigned, remain true to their words, possessed compassion for others, to deal firmly with the law and orders and finally and most importantly possessed character of highest order for others to emulate.
- Shudras: the section of the society who are permitted to accept others’ employment, to render service to others for eke out their living, to be loyal to their masters, to follow general moral principles etc.
- (farmers, merchants, and business) They are the business class. Create wealth, to do their trade most ethically, to doll out taxes as required.
The differentiation in respective classes of people and their jobs, at that time was suitable, but this is now petering out slowly but surely. Now even the castes have no relevance as far as the division of labour is concerned. Now the Brahamanas, Shudras, Vaishas are joining the armed forces for the defence of the land which previously was the domain of Kshatriyas. For example, I am Brahmana but I served in the armed forced besides my father too served in the army.
Division of Labour in Capitalist Societies
In the capitalist society, the division of labour is according to the merit and capability of a person and believes in the dictum that social inequality reflects natural inequality thus spreading the virus of hatred with each other.
Karl Marx’s theory on division of labour
- Karl Marx believed in division of labour in capital economy.
- But he opines that division of labour brings about alienation of working classes as the workers are not able to use the product he makes.
- Division of labour does not adversely affects the skill of labour he is able to do only a particularor specific type of labour and cannot do anything other than specific task assigned.
- He was the proponent of division of labour on the basis of social mechanism of control.
Adam Smith’s theory on the division of labor
- Division of labour plays an important role in capitalism.
- Adam Smith considered the division of labour as far as production is concerned after the use of capital in the market.
- This division was conceived on the basis of skill differentiation and consequent increased productivity. Smith gave the example of production of pins.
Durkheim’s theory on the division of labor
- His views with regard to division of labour as an important constituent of capitalist societies.
- He considered division of lab our as the natural law.
- He also considered that division of labour resulted in negative aspects in the societies different classes in the same society – resulting in wide disparity of income in the society.
In view of the above, it is prudent to say that although there are inequalities in the society but this inequalities are due to:
- Difference in the income of people.
- Merits of people. More the merit higher the position in the hierarchy.
- Proficiency in deliverance despite adverse situations etc.
Despite the differences or inequalities persisting in our society, we should make concerted efforts to take along those members of our society who are left out by the history or due to some other reasons through principles of special assistance from the state.